Michal Cifra

Michal Cifra is a senior scientist at the Institute of Photonics and Electronics of the Czech Academy of Sciences. He has written several very interesting papers on bio-photons and electromagnetic cellular interactions in general.

Electromagnetic cellular interactions PDF

This paper is a comprehensive review of the literature on the generation, transmission and reception of electromagnetic fields in biological systems. Fields can be of a static or oscillating nature and can come from inside the organism or from the outside.

  • There is no doubt that biosystems can be affected by EMFs at several levels.
  • There is also little doubt that biosystems can be the source of EMFs.
  • The main question is whether biosystems use EMF for purposeful interaction (communication) and if so at what level of the bio-organism will it happen?

The amount of data that support the latter notion is rapidly mounting at the same speed as the increasing number of questions that need to be addressed. One of the major problems in this line of research originates in the lack of the usual reproducibility that scientists are used to observe in their experiments. Several scientists blame these discrepancies on known confounding factors such as geophysical properties of the experiment place, timing and season of the experiment, lighting or conditions of the laboratory and cosmo-physical factors. Not to mention that the scientist as a biosystem is also a source of measurable UPE” – Cifra

Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: a critical review PDF

This paper reviews papers describing ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) and looks for evidence of behaviour in biological systems that would require theoretical explanations that lie outside of classical physics.

There are various interesting phenomena that seem to defy classical physics and various solutions have been proposed:

  • Difficulty of measurement
  • Low signal to noise ratio making meaningful transmission of information unlikely
  • Hyperbolic decay patterns indicating spatial and temporal organisation
  • Proposed solution of stochastic resonance
  • Proposed solution of ‘coherent’ signalling (quantum or electromagnetic)

Cifra et al are unimpressed, point out several mistakes in calculation or procedure and suggest that alternative mechanisms (eg acoustic) should be explored.

The conclusion of our review is twofold; while the phenomenon of UPE from biological systems can be considered experimentally well established, no reliable evidence for the coherence or non-classicality of UPE was actually achieved up to now.

Related pages:


Electromagnetic cellular interactions
Authors: Michal Cifra, Jeremy Z Fields, Ashkan Farhadi

Biophotons, coherence and photocount statistics: a critical review
Authors: Michal Cifra, Christian Brouder, Michaela Nerudová, Ondřej Kučera

Cell-to-cell signalling through light: just a ghost of chance?
Authors: Micha Cifra, Ondřej Kučera

How do cells generate and respond to electromagnetic fields?
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