Harold Hillman (1930-2016) was a British Scientist who claimed that almost everything that was observed of biological cells through an electron microscope was in fact a fiction produced by the preparation of the samples and the action of the electron beam itself.
The images bear little resemblance to actual reality but the resulting models are still reproduced in textbooks today as of they were established fact.
Cell Biology is Currently in Dire Straights
“During a research career lasting more than 50 years, I have concluded that the following procedures are unsuitable for studying the biology of living cells in Intact animals and plants: subcellular fractionation; histology; histochemistry; electron microscopy; binding studies; use of ligands; immunocytochemistry; tissue slices; disruptive techniques; dehydration; deep freezing; freeze drying; boiling; use of extracellular markers; receptor studies; patch clamp measurements; inadequate calibrations”
“The nuclei, containing the nucleoli, and the mitochondria, are the only structures seen by light microscopy in the cytoplasm of living cells.
All the other structures claimed to be present are only seen in electron micrographs of dead tissue, or in fixed stained histological sections.
If they existed, the cytoplasm would be almost solid with endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, peroxisomes, contractile proteins and stress fibres.”
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Harold Hillman in conversation with David Crowe author of The Infectious Myth